Monday, 2 October, 2023

Farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet Muhammad (Part-2)

Jubayer Ahmad

The Messenger of Allah arrived at Mina on Thursday, the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah and performed Zuhr, Asor, Maghrib, Easha and Fajr prayer there. After Fajr prayer of the 9th Dhul-Hijjah (Friday), he stayed for a while at Mina until the sun rose. Then He (PBUH) along with his companions moved towards Arafah. A tent was built for Him at Namirah on the east of Arafah field. He sat inside the tent till the sun went down and ordered his companions to make ready Al-Qaswa, his she-camel for him. A little bit after midday our beloved prophet (PBUH) came out from his tent and climbed the back of his camel Al-Qaswa. The camel was moving slowly. When the camel arrived at the middle of Arafah field, the Messenger of Allah stopped his camel and started to deliver the final sermon of the Hajj sitting on the back of the camel. The sermon included the basic aims of Islam. It was the best example of eloquence, and conciseness and the content of the message was humane. The Prophet (PBUH) explained the basic elements of Islamic faith. He started the sermon with two testimony of Islamic faith. He (PBUH) said: ‘I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah Most High. He is One without any partner. I bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is His servant and His Messenger.’ Then the Prophet (PBUH) abolished the blood revenge for Ibn Rabi’ah ibn Al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib, and he condoned the usury of his uncle Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib. He also ordered the people to look after the women and treat them kindly. The prophet (PBUH) emphasised justice and equality in this last sermon of his life. He (PBUH) spoke clearly that racial supremacy is unacceptable, all human beings are equal and women have proper economic and social rights. The Messenger of Allah described the laws of the rites of the Hajj and he had swept away the remnants of paganism. The Prophet (PBUH) concluded his valuable and historical speech with another short prayer of thanksgiving to the almighty Allah and called upon Him to be a Witness that he discharged his duty, and fulfilled his obligations.
When the sermon was finished, the prophet ordered Bilal (Ra) to call Azan and Iqamah. Although it was Friday, The prophet didn’t perform Jumua prayer, but he performed both of Zuhr and Asor prayer with one Azan and two Iqamah making Qasr and combined together. He didn’t pray anything between them. Thereafter, the Messenger of Allah moved to Jabalur Rahmah, stood facing the Qiblah and supplicated to Allah (SWT) for a long time. Then the Messenger of Allah moved onward to Muzdalifah (it is an open area located southeast of Mina, on the way between Mina and Arafah. Pilgrims arrive here after sunset on the 9th Dhul Hijjah and spend the night here). Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) performed the Maghrib and the Easha prayers together with one Azan and two Iqamah.
The prophet and his companions said Easha prayer in Qasr mode (shortened to two Rakats). Abdullah ibn Umar (Ra) said: The Prophet (PBUH) offered the Maghrib and Isha prayers together at Jam (Muzdalifa) with a separate Iqama for each of them and did not offer any optional prayer in between them or after each of them. (Sahih Bukhari). Although it was a common practice of our beloved prophet to perform Tahajjud prayer at the dead of every night, that night He didn’t perform the Tahajjud. He went to sleep just after offering Easha prayer and laid down till it was time for Fajr prayer. He woke up at dawn and performed the Fajr prayer at almost daybreak time. He then mounted his she-camel, al-Qaswa, and moved to al-Mashar al-Haram where he praised Allah and supplicated to Him with devotion. He remained there until there was light all around and he made his way to Mina just before the sunrise. He took his cousin brother Fdl Ibn Abbas (Ra) on his camel back and reached the valley Muhassar. Next, the prophet (PBUH) gave his harness bell shake to direct his she-camel to move faster. When the prophet reached Jamarat al-Kubbra, the big Jamrah (symbolically, the devil), he stopped and pelted seven pebbles saying Allahu Akbar “Allah is the Greatest” with each pebble. Each pebble was the size of a small bean hurled from the bottom of the valley. It was the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah, the prophet (PBUH) delivered a short sermon. When the Prophet (PBUH) was delivering his sermon at Mina, all the people present at Mina (one Lac twenty four thousand Muslims) heard the sermon of the prophet equally. Both the nearby and distant people heard the words of the prophet with equal sound.
After completing the sermon, the prophet went to the sacrificial place where the arrangement for Qurbani (sacrificing animals) was made and sacrificed sixty-three camels with his hands and ordered Ali (Ra) to slaughter the rest of the animals (37). A piece of meat from each slaughtered animal was brought to cook in a pot and from which both men (the prophet and Ali) ate, and drank the soup. Next, the Prophet (PBUH) along with his companions returned to the Ka’bah, the house of Allah in Makkah and circumambulated the Ka’bah seven times. It was the final Tawaf (circumambulation) of the Farewell Pilgrimage. Then the prophet performed Juhr prayer and reached the Zamzam well, drank water from it stood on his feet, facing the Qiblah and then returned to Mina again. He (PBUH) spent the days of Tashreeq and every day he used to throw stones after Zuhr prayer. He performed the ritual teachings of Islam, remembered Allah (praying) and taught people the basic elements of Islam.
After performing Zuhr prayer on the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah, the prophet and his companions left Mina and arrived at Wadi (valley) Al-Muhassab and stayed the rest of that day and night there and performed Zuhr, Asor and Maghrib prayers there.
Then he slept for a short while and mounted leaving for the Ka‘bah. He circumambulated the Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada) and performed Fajr prayer at Ka’bah. When the Fajr prayer was performed, the Prophet (PBUH) along with his blessed companions started moving towards Madinah. Thus our beloved Prophet completed his farewell and only Hajj and returned to Madinah along with the Ansar and Muhajireen. May Allah give us the good fortune to achieve the intersession of his beloved prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on the day of resurrection and give us Tawfiq to perform Haj again and again.

The writer is Khatib of Baitus Shafiq Mosque and principal of Baitul Hikmah Academy, Gazipur