Italy is to make it compulsory for all workers to have a Covid "green pass" - proof of vaccination, a negative test or recovery from the virus.
The measures are a first for Europe and some of the strictest in the world, reports BBC.
The measure, due to come into force on October 15, aims to boost vaccinations in a country that has been badly hit by the virus.
Green pass certificates for Covid-19, provided both digitally and on paper, are already required to access Italian train stations, cinemas, restaurants, gyms and swimming pools.
School staff are also required to show a pass and some teachers have reportedly been turned away from work.
Businesses and staff could face fines of up to €1,500 (£1,280) if people are found to be working without a valid green pass.