Recent so-called referenda conducted in four Russian-occupied regions in Ukraine cannot be considered legal under international law, the UN’s political affairs chief, Rosemary DiCarlo, told the Security Council on Tuesday.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy also briefed ambassadors, blasting the “sham referenda”, though Russia objected to his participation via videoconference.
The referenda were held over the past five days in the Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson, and Zaporizhzhia regions for residents to vote on whether they wished to become part of the Russian Federation. Voting took place in polling centers, DiCarlo reported, and de facto pro-Russian authorities accompanied by soldiers, also went door-to-door with ballot boxes.
These exercises - which were held during active armed conflict, in areas of Ukraine under Russian control and outside Ukraine’s legal and constitutional framework - “cannot be called a genuine expression of the popular will,” she said.
“Unilateral actions aimed to provide a veneer of legitimacy to the attempted acquisition by force by one State of another State’s territory, while claiming to represent the will of the people, cannot be regarded as legal under international law.”
The political affairs chief underscored the UN’s full commitment to the sovereignty, unity, independence, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. She reminded Russia of its obligation to respect the country’s laws in the administration of occupied territories.
Meanwhile, daily attacks on many Ukrainian cities have continued, including in Donetsk and Luhansk, as well as targeting of civilian energy and water infrastructure. “We have also heard alarming rhetoric regarding the use of nuclear weapons. This is unacceptable,” said DiCarlo.
DiCarlo also expressed grave concern over allegations of human rights violations committed in areas of northeastern Ukraine, including after the recovery of more than 400 bodies from improvised graves in the city of Izium.
The UN human rights office, OHCHR, is working with local authorities to investigate this and other allegations in areas in the Kharkiv region that were until recently under Russian control. Last week, the UN-appointed Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine concluded that war crimes had been committed in the conflict.
DiCarlo called for those responsible to be brought to account. “Rarely, if ever, has the international community collected so much evidence of human rights violations, potential war crimes and other atrocities as they were happening,” she said.
“It is tragic that we have not been able to stop them. But it would be shameful if we were not able to ensure justice for the victims and their loved ones.”
Overall, the war has resulted in some 14,844 verified civilian casualties so far, with nearly 6,000 deaths, according to OHCHR, though actual numbers are likely to be considerably higher.
Its ripple effects continue to be felt by millions worldwide, affected by rising fuel and energy costs. DiCarlo highlighted the vital need to renew the Black Sea Grain Initiative, which is due to expire in November.
More than five million metric tonnes of foodstuffs have been shipped from Ukrainian ports since the deal was signed in July, according to the UN Spokesperson briefing journalists in New York on Tuesday (Sept 27), heralding the 5,250,578-tonne figure so far, as “good news”.
The initiative continues to gather pace, DiCarlo told ambassadors, while efforts to remove remaining obstacles to Russian food exports continue.
Nebenzia, the Russian ambassador, defended the controversial referenda, which he said were monitored by more than 100 independent international observers from 40 countries. He told the Council President Zelenskyy had stated in an interview that people who considered themselves Russian, or who liked Russia, should leave Ukraine.
“Now the inhabitants of Donbass, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia oblasts are carrying out his cynical recommendation. They're returning to the homeland and they're taking their land with them that their forefathers lived on for centuries,” he said, speaking through an interpreter.
“The referendums were conducted exclusively transparently with upholding of all electoral norms. This is an undisputed fact. However, the Kyiv regime and its backers want to say anything to the contrary.”