The global economy is facing a series of obstacles this year, ranging from Covid-19 lockdowns in China, soaring energy and food prices, Ukraine crisis and a broadening drive by central banks to combat high inflation by increasing borrowing costs.
Slowing growth, scorching inflation and rising US interest rates are intensifying a squeeze on emerging-market finances and stoking concern over a fully-fledged debt crisis in low- and middle-income countries. Emerging economies world-wide feel a financial strain after the Federal Reserve’s interest-rate increase with some facing the possibility of a debt crisis as global growth slows and hopes for a reprieve from rising inflation evaporates.
Eurozone: The Eurozone economy was reasonably resilient in early 2022, and while we do not forecast a Eurozone recession, the onset on the Russia-Ukraine war potentially raises the risk of a sharper growth slowdown than we currently expect.
Eurozone Q1 GDP rose 0.3% quarter-over-quarter, matching the pace of growth in Q4, and increased 5.1% year-over-year. Eurozone employment was also quite resilient during Q1, rising 0.5% quarter-over-quarter and 2.6% year-over-year. There were, however, some concerning signs of a loss of momentum in March, as retail sales fell 0.4% month-over-month and industrial output fell 1.8%.
In contrast to slower growth prospects, Eurozone inflation appears likely to remain elevated for the time being. Given elevated inflation and clear signals of an early interest rate increase among ECB policymakers, we now expect the ECB to announce tighter monetary policy.
While we expect a relatively steady euro in the short term, our outlook remains for a softer euro over time. With the pace of ECB tightening set to lag that of the Fed's, and also fall short of that priced by market participants, our outlook remains for the euro to revert to a softer trend over the medium term.
The United States: Persistent supply shortages, a 40-year high in inflation and the Federal Reserve’s aggressive efforts to tame price pressures by raising interest rates are cooling the US economy. An end to the war in Ukraine is not in sight. We expect oil price to continue increasing particularly in the near term. We may have yet to see the peak in inflation after all.
US Q1 GDP was a significant downside surprise, contracting at a 1.4% quarter-over-quarter annualised rate. Nonetheless, the absence of fiscal stimulus, along with high inflation, means we expect a trend of slower growth going forward. We have slashed our projections for second-quarter output growth. We now estimate that the GDP is on track to remain unchanged at an annual rate over the second quarter. Output fell at a 1.4% annual rate in the first quarter. We have also seen lowered US GDP growth forecast for 2022 to 2.4%.
We look for the FOMC to hike rates by an additional 275 bps between now and early 2023. Higher interest rates will weigh on interest rate-sensitive spending. We look for real consumer spending on durable goods to slip 5% between late 2022 and the end of the next year. We also forecast that the sharp rise in mortgage rates will cause housing starts to tumble.
The high rate of inflation is eroding consumer purchasing power. Consumers have financed solid rates of spending growth by bringing down their saving rates and by running up credit card debt, but these measures are not sustainable. We look for growth in business fixed investment spending to turn negative starting in the second quarter of next year, which coincides with the modest decline we expect will occur in payrolls. We forecast that the unemployment rate will rise from 3.5% in Q1-2023 to nearly 5% by the end of next year.
Our forecast has changed from an economic soft landing to a mild and relatively brief recession starting in mid-2023. The recession that we are forecasting for the next year is not necessarily assured, nor is the magnitude and length that we anticipate. The recession, should it indeed occur, could actually be deeper and longer than we forecast. The stresses associated with an economic downturn can expose imbalances that hitherto had been largely undetected. These imbalances can then exacerbate the downward adjustment in the economy.
The writer is a politician, author,
columnist & presently Director General, Bangladesh Foundation for