Climate change is a terrifying occurrence in today's world. As a result of climate change, the earth's temperature is slowly rising which is known as global warming. Climate means 30-35 years of average weather of a geographical area. Climate change depends on a number of regulators, such as crust formation, volcanic eruptions, biological processes and changes in solar radiation from the Earth. As a result of global warming, various natural disasters such as cyclones, tornadoes, droughts, tidal surges, torrential rains, heavy rains, flash floods, etc., are on the rise. As a result, massive loss of human and natural resources is increasing and billions of rupees are being wasted every year. In the language of science, it is also called the greenhouse effect.
Most countries of the world are facing the threat of global warming due to adverse effects on the natural environment. An important report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says that climate change is evident in the extreme heat waves, heavy rainfall, droughts or cyclones that are now occurring in many parts of the world.
The key points of the IPCC report are:
- During the decade between 2011-2020, the surface temperature increased by 1.09 degrees from 1850-1900.
- The last five years have been the warmest in the history of the world, according to records since 1850.
- During the period 1901-1971, the sea level has risen almost three times.
- The melting of glaciers worldwide since the 1990's and the depletion of the Arctic ice – have both been attributed to humans.
UN scientists report that the harmful effects of human activities on the environment are a "red signal" for human life. The report's authors say that by the end of this century, sea level rise could reach as high as two meters and the possibility of negative effects of climate change is imminent. However, the report also said that greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide and methane, could be significantly reduced if temperatures were to stabilise.
In the coming decades, the whole world will have to face the challenge of climate change. We have to face the natural disasters caused by climate change. According to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), formed in 1986 to assess the effects of climate change, the effects of climate change are slowly increasing and are expected to take a terrible turn. It is estimated that by 2100, global temperatures could rise to 1.1-6.4 degrees Celsius. As the temperature rises, many species of plants and animals will become extinct and the environment conducive to the habitat of plants and animals will be destroyed. Sea level is expected to rise to 34 centimeters by 2080. Coastal areas of Bangladesh, Maldives, Egypt, Vietnam, Fiji, Kiribati, etc. may become submerged. As the agricultural land becomes saline, productivity will decrease, in some areas floods will increase and in some areas the tendency of droughts will increase. Cyclones will occur more intensely. Groundwater levels will drop and seawater temperatures will rise. Soil fertility will be reduced and natural water resources will be lost. The world is facing a variety of threats, such as the depletion of ozone and oxygen in the oceans.
In order to control the problems caused by climate change, the governments of the affected countries are asking for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions down to zero by the middle of the current century, i.e. by 2050. Also, the amount of gas that is emitted should be balanced in the environment by planting trees. Moreover, we need to be aware of the reasons why the amount of carbon dioxide and harmful gases is increasing day by day. One must refrain from using those things which are harmful for the environment. We must be careful about the use of pesticides on the land. Dependence on packaged foods should also be reduced. The catastrophe caused by climate change can only be avoided by slowing down the rapid rise in temperature.
Kazi Farhana Islam, student, Department of Islamic Studies, Jagannath University