A court in Argentina considering a criminal case against Myanmar officials for mass atrocity crimes committed against Rohingya in Myanmar should proceed, Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights and Fortify Rights said in an amicus curiae submitted to an Argentinean court.
If accepted by the Federal Court in Argentina, the case would be the first universal jurisdiction case related to the situation of the Rohingya worldwide, said the Fortify Rights in a press statement on Saturday.
In the amicus curiae submitted on Thursday to the National Chamber of Federal Criminal and Correctional Appeals in Buenos Aires, RFK Human Rights and Fortify Rights provided expert analysis to the court in support of a petition filed in Federal Court in Argentina on November 13, 2019 by Rohingya activist Maung Tun Khin of the Burmese Rohingya Organization UK (BROUK), six female survivors, and two Latin American human rights organizations.
The original petition urges the court to investigate, under “universal jurisdiction,” genocide and crimes against humanity, including sexual violence committed with impunity against Rohingya in Myanmar.
Universal jurisdiction enables states to investigate and prosecute crimes under international law, such as crimes against humanity or genocide, regardless of where they occurred. The principle of universal jurisdiction is enshrined in the Argentine national legal framework, including in Article 118 of the Constitution.
Maung Tun Khin and BROUK are represented by Argentine lawyer Tomás Ojea Quintana, a former U.N. Special Rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar from 2008 to 2014 and a founding member of the International Advisory Board at Fortify Rights. On July 12, 2021, a lower court in Argentina decided not to investigate atrocity crimes committed against the Rohingya in Myanmar. The court ruled that the Argentinian courts were not the appropriate forum to adjudicate the alleged crimes, as the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court (ICC) is already investigating crimes against Rohingya.
Maung Tun Khin appealed the decision; the first appeal hearing was held on August 17.
The amicus curiae also explains that if the court were to accept the lower court’s argument, there would still be a variety of international crimes against Rohingya in Myanmar that the ICC is not at present investigating, as it is investigating only the crime of forced deportation.
The ICC’s investigation into crimes against the Rohingya is limited to the forced deportation of Rohingya to Bangladesh and other related crimes partially committed in Bangladesh, which is a State Party to the Rome Statute.
The original petition filed by BROUK and others in Argentina covers a variety of crimes committed in Myanmar against the Rohingya since 2012, including murder, enforced disappearance, torture, sexual violence, and imprisonment.
On August 17, 2021, as a part of the proceedings in Argentina, five Rohingya survivors of sexual violence testified remotely to the Federal Criminal Appeals Court in Buenos Aires from Rohingya camps in Bangladesh. On August 23, 2021, six Rohingya civil society organizations in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh also submitted an amicus curiae to the Federal Criminal Appeals Court.
There are more than one million Myanmar nationals known as Rohingya in Bangladesh and the Myanmar military junta continues to confine more than 120,000 people, mostly Rohingya, to more than 20 internment camps in five townships in Rakhine State, Myanmar.