♦ The first Saudi state was established in 1744 under the leadership of Mohammad Bin Saud.
♦ The second Saudi state was established in 1824 under the leadership of Turki Bin Abdullah.
♦ National Name: Al-Mamlakatul Arabiya As-Saudia (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
♦ Government type : Monarchy with an appointed Council of Ministers and an appointed Majlis al-Shura. Saudi citizens enjoy the right of direct petition to the government to have their voices heard. Legal decisions are based on Islamic Shariah, and there is no separate constitution.
♦ Head of State: The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud since January 23, 2015.
♦ Area : 2,240,000 sq. k.m. (829,995 sq. miles)
♦ Language : Arabic. (English is also spoken)
♦ Religion : Islam
♦ Flag : It is of green colour. Its length is two thirds of its size and it carries the creed of monotheism; “La Ilaha Illa Allah Muhammadur Rasulullah” (There is no deity but Allah; Muhammad (pbuh) is messenger of Allah). An unsheathed sword symbolizing Justice follows below the inscription. The flag of the Kingdom is the only one in the world that can never be flown at half-mast because of the inscription of 'Tawhid'.
♦ Emblem : Two cross swords represent the emblem of the Kingdom with a palm tree at the top. The palm tree symbolizes prosperity and growth while the swords represent justice, power and safety.
♦ Climate : Temperature varies from 8.57°C to 28.32°C in the north and from 26.68°C to 33.97°C in the south of the country.
♦ Rainfall: scanty and irregular. Long, hot and dry summer. Temperature drops markedly at night. In winter night slight snowfall is seen.
♦ Ethnicity/Race : Arab-90%, Afro-Asian-10%
♦ Literacy Rate : 95.33% (2021)
♦ Location: Southwest Asia, at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa; extending from the Red Sea in the west to the Arabian Gulf in the east; bordered on the north by Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, on the south by Yemen and Oman, and on the east by the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain.
♦ Currency : Saudi Riyal (SR). Exchange rate USD $1=SR 3.75.
♦ Total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) : USD 115 billion. National Airlines : Saudia. The current flight schedule between the kingdom and Bangladesh is : Dhaka –Jeddah, Dhaka-Riyadh, Dhaka –Dammam, Dhaka-Medina.
♦ Administrative Division : The Kingdom is divided into 13 administrative regions; which are: 1) Riyadh 2) Holy Makkah 3) Holy Madinah 4) Qassim 5) The Eastern Region 6) Asseer 7) Tabuk 8) Hail 9) The Northern Border 10) Jazan 11) Najran 12) Al-Baha 13) Al-Jouf
♦ Time: Greenwich Mean Time plus three (GMT+3)=Eastern Standard Time plus eight (seven during Daylight Savings Time).
♦ Holidays: Closure of all offices and schools on Eid Al-Fitr, Eid Al Azha.
♦ Business: Government offices: Sunday to Thursday from 7:30 am to 2:30 pm; private business from 8:00 am to noon and 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm; general banking from 8:00 am until noon and from 5:00 pm until 8:00 pm and markets and shops from 8:00 am until 10:00 pm.
♦ Health : Highest per capita health expenditure in the world. Free medical facilities for all citizens, including expatriates. Number of hospitals-213, beds-45,500, doctors-30,700, primary health centers-3130 (2004).
♦ Education : Primary education in Saudi Arabia lasts six years and the children begin school at the age of six and continue for twelve years in high school. After high school students can continue their education in vocational and training school as well as university education. Education is free at all levels for the citizens.
♦ Industry : To achieve Vision 2030, Saudi Arabia is growing and diversifying its economy: the industrial and manufacturing sectors in particular has the ambition to drive this diversification. The development and growth of the industrial and manufacturing industry is being catalyzed by attractive ecosystem consisting of industrial cities, well-developed infrastructure, high quality utility supplies, and a well-established logistics network.
♦ Agriculture: Cultivable land 4.5 million hectors. Land under actual cultivation 2.9 million hectors. Pasture land - 48 million hectors. Main crops: The Date crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is more than the domestic need. It is noteworthy that the Saudis consume a large quantity of dates estimated at 29 kg per person annually. There are more than 43 date factories in KSA. Other crops- Wheat, Cereals, fruits, potato and vegetables. 4 million tones wheat grow in KSA per year and a large number of various kind of vegetable and fruits and flora cultivate their.
♦ Electricity: Over 90 percent of the total areas have been covered under Electrification program at the end of 6th development plan (1996-2000).
♦ Tourism:Most Attractive tourist resorts are : Taif, Al-Shifa, Al-Hada, Al-Baha, Abha, Khamis Mushait, Al-Namas, Al-Ahsa, Besides, there is a beautiful half-moon beach in the eastern region and port city Jeddah's beautiful 'coral reefs' and long beaches.
♦ Minerals: Total crude oil reserves-260 billion barrels (25 percent of world reserve); Total gas reserve-180 trillion cubic feet. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which owns the 4th largest reserve of national gas. Other minerals: Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Gold, Tin & Tungsten, Iron, Copper, Uranium, Phosphates, Bauxite, Potassium, Granite and Marbles.