Before standing before Allah (SWT) to offer prayers Muslims are required to make ablution. Allah (SWT) says: “O you who believe! When you stand up (prepare) for prayer, wash your face and hands up to the elbows, and wipe a part of your head and (wash) your feet up to the ankles.” (Sura Al Mayeda; Ayat: 06). Abu Huraira (RA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The prayer of a person who does Hadath (passes urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs the ablution." (Sahih al-Bukhari). Ablution is not only important before standing for prayers. It is also required to perform ablution before numerous other acts of worship including optional prayers, touching the script of the holy Qur’an and the rites of the pilgrimage (Hajj). Remaining in the state of ablution is also a worship. Anas Ibn Malik (RA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, ‘If a person is in a state of Wudu' when the Angel of Death comes, he will attain the status of Shaheed (martyrdom).’ (Tabarani).
Even performing ablution is itself an act of worship. Sins comes out of the body of a Muslim when he Performs Ablution Well. Abu Huraira (RA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “When a believer washes his face in ablution, every sin that he committed with his eyes will be washed away with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, every sin that he committed with his hands will be washed away with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, every sin that he committed with his feet will be washed away with the last drop of water, until he emerges purified from sin.” (Muslim). It is mandatory upon every Muslim to know the method of ablution (wudu) well.
There are some Sunnah actions in ablution. These are: 1. Making the intention (niyyat) in one's mind. Creating the intention is a matter of mind, there are no special words that need to be said here. 2. Reciting ‘Basmalah’ (Bismillahirrahmanirrahim). It can also be said silently. 3. Washing the hands up to the wrists. 4. Brushing the teeth with a Miswak (tooth stick). It is an important Sunnah of ablution. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "If I had not found it a hardship for my Ummah, I would order them to make wudu for every Salat and to use miswak in every wudu." (Bukhari & Muslim). According to another Hadith, "Ablution is a part of faith and using a Miswak is a part of ablution." 5. Gargling three times. 5. Rinsing the nose three times. 6. Passing fingers of both hands, against each other, and also passing them through the toes (Khilal of fingers and toes) 7.Combing (doing Khilal) the beard with the fingers 8. Wiping total heads one time. 9. Wiping the two ears. 10. Washing each limb three times. 11. To start washing from right.
There are some Mustaham acts in ablution. These are: 1. Beginning ablution (wudu) from the right side. 2. Facing towards Qiblah. 3. Performing ablution while sitting at a clean and elevated place. 4. Performing ‘Masa’h’ of the nape.
When a Muslim wants to make ablution, he should start ablution with intention (niyat). Then he should recite ‘Basmalah’, Brush the teeth with Miswak, wash two hands with wrist. Then he should gargle with fresh water three times, rinse the nose three times. Then face is to be washed three times from right ear to left ear and from forehead to throat, wash two hands (arms) with elbows, Masah (wipe) total heads once. Then wipe ears inside and out by putting finger in all crevices of ear and thumb behind it and both feet are washed to the ankles three times.
There is a Duwa that should be recited after completing ablution. Which is most beneficial for us. Narrated from ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (Radi.), Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: 'Whoever performs Wudu, making Wudu well, then says: (Ashhaduan la ilahaillallah, wahdahu la sharikalahu, waashhaduanna Muhammadan-abduhuwarasuluhu, Allahummajalniminattawwabin, waj'alniminalmutatahhirin) 'I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone, there are no partners for Him. And I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. O Allah! Make me among the repentant, and make me among those who purify themselves.' Then eight gates of Paradise are opened for him, that may enter by whichever of them wishes." (Tirmidhi).