Modern farming practices and development works have imposed tremendous pressure on environmental security and sustainability. Infectious diseases, ecological deterioration, loss of biodiversity, soil health depletion, extermination of beneficial pest and climate alteration have become the recurrent comprehensive threats today.
During the period of 1960-1970, green revolution had brought a new dimension in agricultural sector. Later on silver revolution intensified fish resources and white revolution for poultry resources during 1980-90 to reduce the global poverty level. International fertiliser and pesticide companies advised local farmers to employ chemical fertilisers and pesticides for more production and nutrition security. Previously, farmers used to apply sap of diverse plants, indigenous nets for killing pest and husks of various crops in traditional agriculture. Dr. Masanobu Fukuoka is the father of organic farming. Organic farming means no ploughs, fertilisers or pesticides and not cutting weeds but mixing it with soil for high yield.In general, farmers employ detrimental agrochemicals in croplands without considering the beneficial pest protection and pollination. Potash, sulphates, calcium carbonate, triple super phosphate are normally used in fields. For potato, egg-plant they apply − carbendajin, wantap-50, wansilva 10, quinfis-25 per cent, denitol, festaq 2.5, melathion, corden, methoxicore, bydrin, dibrone, diajinon 10, lebasid and dimecron. Fenom, theovit, nexin, sevin, diplerox, monotuf 40, thiojen has been used for sponge gourd, ribbed gourd, sweet gourd, cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower and Hyacinth bean. In the same way, for Aush, Amon and Boro − polivit-500, kiridan-5, crijol-5, basudin-10, topsin mithyle, ripcord, dursburn 20 and sebin-60 are used. Such type of agrochemicals kills beneficial pests and microorganisms which are very essential for pollination. Some of them are – cyanobacteria, azotobactor, ghas foring, pata foring, sobuj poka, pata poka, damsel bugs, ground beetles, lacewings, pirate bugs, tachinid flies, etc. Not only pests are killed but also, frogs, birds, snakes, ladybird beetle are killed by agrochemicals. As a result, crop pollination is now under danger.
Pesticides can potentially wipe out common bumble bee (bombus terretis) population. Prof. Nigel Raine mentions: globally, 26 per cent less capacity of pollination has been visible nowadays. Researchers mention pollination is essential for crops that will escalate by the use indigenous manures. The bio-fertilizers are green wastes, coconut cake, oil cakes, sludge, coal ash, wood ash, paddy husk, castor cake, mustard cake, groundnut cake, linseed cake, neem cake, fish meal, water hyacinths, cow dung, vegetable materials, stool of livestock’s, weeds of big tree, farmyard manures, etc. These manures have a possible upshot in correcting severe unsustainable microbiological or chemical reaction of soil and escalate pollination. Biological system such as bacillus thuringiensis can make protein oriented compound which kills lepidopetra and colepetra class based insects. The protein element of tobacco mosaic can eradicate X-virus and Y-virus. Osmotin and seamatin protein prevents hostile fungus.
We may employ farm yard manures for sustainable agricultural practices. Manures of cows and buffaloes are enriched with nitrogen, phosphate and potash. Both cow dung and urine can be used as manures. In cow dung, the amount of nitrogen is 0.40 per cent, phosphate 0.20 per cent and potash 0.10 per cent. In urine, there are 1 per cent nitrogen, 0.1 per cent phosphate and 1.35 per cent potash. Both goat and sheep excretes of dung and urine can be applied in land as natural fertiliser which enriches with nitrogen 0.75 per cent, phosphate 0.50 per cent and potash 2.10 per cent. Their urine is composed of 1.35 per cent nitrogen, 0.05 per cent phosphate and 2.10 per cent potash. Excreta and droppings from horse are also beneficial for agriculture. The horse dung has 0.55 per cent nitrogen, 0.30 per cent phosphate and 0.40 per cent potash. In addition the urine has 1.35 per cent nitrogen, 0.10 per cent phosphate and 1.25 per cent potash. Apart from that, manures induced from swine are also healthy for soil fertility. Dung of swine has 0.55 per cent nitrogen, 0.50 per cent phosphate and 0.40 per cent potash. Also, urine is enriched with 0.40 per cent nitrogen, 0.20 per cent phosphate and 0.40 per cent potash.
In 1881, Charles Darwin investigated the role of vermin-composting in crop production and increasing soil fertility. Pollination is essential for crops that will escalate by the use of local manures. Farm yard manures would boost the crops production capacity of soil. Not only integrate the air, water, organic matter and minerals in soil, farmers would be risk free from chemicals. In addition, these manures enhance the water holding potential of soil. Also, farm yard manures ensure the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits.
Shishir Reza, environmental analyst