Obligations of Eid-ul-Fitr

Jubayer Ahmad

12 May, 2021 12:00 AM printer

Eid-ul-Fitr, the biggest religious festival of Muslims, is knocking at the door. Millions of Muslims across the world are going to celebrate Eid-ul-Fitr. According to Quran and Hadith, there are some obligations related to Eid-ul-Fitr. The first is offering two rakats Eid prayer with the congregation. It is the major obligation of Eid. Offering prayer to Allah on Eid day means Muslims understand and realise that all the joy and pleasure in his life is the blessing of Allah and they need to be thankful to Allah for it. Our beloved Prophet (PBUH) and his companions used to offer two rakats Eid prayer in an open area rather than a mosque. Hazrat Jabir bin Samurah (Ra) said, “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah the two Eid prayers more than once or twice, without an Adhan or Iqamah.” (Sahih Muslim).

Another obligation of Eid-ul-Fitr is giving Sadaqatul Fitr. Sadaqatul Fitr is also known as Zakat-ul-Fitr. The word Sadaqah means charity and the word Fitr means “breaking a fast”. Sadaqatul Fitr is the obligatory charity (specific amount referred to food or equivalent cash) that Muslims have to give at the end of Ramadan, the fasting month. A Muslim (whether male or female) who is adult, sane, and has minimum amount of extra wealth (87.48 grams of gold or 612.36 grams of silver or its equivalent in cash) called Nisab out of their personal items (home, furniture, cars, food, clothing) is obliged to pay Sadqatul Fitr. Ibn Umar (Ra) narrated that “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) prescribed the payment of Zakat-ul-Fitr (on breaking the fast) of Ramadan for people, for every freeman, or slave, male and female among the Muslims one sa' of dried dates, or one sa' of barley.” (Sahih Muslim). The head of the household must pay the Fitra on behalf of his/her own self and on behalf of their spouse, children and each member of his family who will be celebrating the Eid in his home. It should also be paid on behalf of the baby, who is born before the Fajr (dawn) of Eid day. The person who died after the Fajr (dawn) on the day of Eid, Zakat-ul-Fitr should be paid on their behalf.

The purpose of Sadaqatul Fitr is to purify all the sins, committed during the fasting period, and to provide food to the poor and needy so that they may rejoice with the more fortunate. Ibn Abbas (Ra) narrated that “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) made the Sadaqatul Fitr obligatory for purifying our fasting from vain talk and shameful mistakes and making arrangements for the poor and the needy for food and clothing (for the festival of Eid). (Abu Dawud).

Sadaqatul Fitr becomes obligatory upon the arrival of the dawn of Eid day (1st Shawwal the 10th month of lunar or Islamic calendar). It is permissible to give it from the beginning of Ramadan. But it is better to pay it few days before Eid so that the people who need it can enjoy the festivity with pleasure as well. The blessed companions of the Prophet used to pay it a few days earlier. It must be given before leaving for Eidgah. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Whoever paid it (Sadaqatul Fitr) before Eid Prayer, it is accepted as Zakat (Sadaqatul Fitr) before Allah. Whoever paid it after Eid Prayer, it is just a charity.” (Sahih Bukhari)

The amount of Sadqatul Fitr is 3.3 kg of dates, barley or 1.65 kg of wheat or equivalent cash. The companions of our beloved Prophet used to give Sadaqatul Fitr as a Sa’ (four double handfuls) of food. Abu Sayeed Khudry (Ra) said, “We used to bring forth as the zakat (Zakat-ul-Fitr) on breaking the fast of Ramadan a sa’ of grain, or of barley, or of dried dates, or of cheese, or of raisins.” (Sahih Bukhari).

It is also allowed to give money instead of food. This year, Islamic Foundation Bangladesh has set the Fitra at a minimum of Tk 70 (per head) and a maximum of Tk 2,310. The minimum level of Fitra has been set at 1.65 kgs of flour, with a market value of Tk 70. On the other hand, 3.3 kgs of barley with a market value of Tk 1,320, 3.3 kgs raisin with a value of Tk 1,320, 3.3 kgs of dates with a value of Tk 1,980, or 3.3 kgs of cheese with a value of Tk 2,310.

There is a Haram act on Eid day. It is Haram to fast on the day of Eid-ul-Fitr. Abu Sayeek Khudri (Ra) narrated, “The Prophet (PBUH) prohibited fasting on the day of the two festivals (Eid); the day of Eid-ul-Fitr and the day of Eid-ul-Azha.” (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim).

 

The writer is a national award

winner Qari and Khatib of Baitush

Shafiq Mosque (near National

University), Gazipur


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