Rangunia Upazila (Chittagong district) area 410.73 sq km, located in between 22°18’ and 22°370’ north latitudes and in between 91°58’ and 92°08’ east longitudes. It is bounded by Kawkhali upazila (Rangamati) on the north, Chandanaish, Patiya and Boalkhali upazilas on the south, Kaptai, Rajasthali and Bandarban Sadar upazilas on the east, Raozan and Kawkhali upazilas on the west.
Population: Total 303998; male 157596, female 146402; Muslim 236474, Hindu 44975, Buddhist 478, Christian 16378 and others 65. Indigenous communities such as chakma and marma belong to this upazila. Water bodies: Main river: karnafuli.
Administration Rangunia Thana was formed on 24 January 1962 and it was turned into an upazila in 1983. Municipality was formed on 4 July 2000.
Archaeological heritage and relics: Remnants of the palace Shukbilash (18th century), Ranir Pukur (Raja Hat), Pagla Mama Dargah (19th century), Shahen Shah Dargah (Pomara), Dharma Chakra Vihara (1750), Jagadhatri Mandir, Sree Sree Ramakrishna Mandir (Santiniketan), Shiva Chaturdashi Mandir (Parua), Krishna Mandir (Majumdarkhil), Sagar Dighi (Rajanagar), Mahamuni Buddhist Monastery, Simaghar.
Historical events: Chakma kings (Shukdev Roy, Sher Daulat Khan, Jan Baksh Khan, Tabbar Khan, Jabbar Khan, Dharam Baksh Khan, Rani Kalindi, Harish Chandra Rai and others) ruled this area since 1757. Chakma King Harish Chandra transferred his capital from Rajanagar of Rangunia to Rangamati in 1874. In 1971 encounters were held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at Ranirhat, Rojarhat and Rangunia. The Pak army conducted looting, burning, rape and mass killing in various places of the upazila.
Marks of the War of Liberation: Mass grave 2; memorial monument 3 (Rangunia College, Rangunia Ideal Multilateral Pilot High School and Ichakhali). Religious institutions: Mosque 359, temple 42, tomb 3, pagoda 41, sacred place 1. Noted religious institutions: Rajanagar Jami Mosque, Dharma Chakra Buddhist Vihara (Said Bari), Bedir Mandir.
Literacy rate and educational institutions: Average literacy 54.3%; male 57.4%, female 50.9%. Educational institutions: college 9, secondary school 41, primary school 148, madrasa 15. Noted educational institutions: Rangunia College (1963), Rangunia Ideal Multilateral Pilot High School (1915), Rangunia Khilmogal Rashik High School (1926), Rangunia Majumdarkhil High School (1927), Pomara High School (1928), Uttar Rangunia High School (1942), Kadamtali Government Primary School (1887), Uttar Padua Government Primary School (1902), Ghagra Shatgharia Government Primary School (1930), Rangunia Nurul Ulum Fazil Madrasa (1936).
Newspapers and periodicals: Rangunia, Rupali Rangunia, Ashar Alo.
Cultural organizations: Library 1, club 10, women’s organisation 2, playground 30.
Tourists spots: Remnants of the Chakma Rajbari (Shukbilash Padua), Mahamuni Buddhist Monastery, Tea garden (Agunia, Kodalia, Thandachhari).
Main sources of income: Agriculture 39.71%, non-agricultural labourer 4.30%, industry 0.58%, commerce 16.24%, transport and communication 3.57%, service 12.31%, construction 1.03%, religious service 0.49%, rent and remittance 10.91% and others 10.86%.
Ownership of agricultural land: Landowner 41.19%, landless 58.81%; agricultural landowner: urban 38.21% and rural 41.81%.’
Main crops: Paddy, tobacco, wheat, potato, onion, garlic, betel leaf, vegetables.
Extinct or nearly extinct crops: Aus paddy, sesame, mustard, kaun.
Main fruits: Mango, black berry, coconut, banana, litchi, papaya, hog plum, olive.
Fisheries, dairies and poultries Fishery 45, dairy 7, poultry 65.
Communication facilities: Pucca road 53 km, mud road 598 km; waterway 12.96 nautical miles. Extinct or nearly extinct traditional transport: Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart.
Noted manufactories: Jute mill, carpet mill, saw mill, chemical industries, welding factory. Cottage industries: Goldsmith, blacksmith, weaving, potteries, tailoring, bamboo work, wood work.
Hats, bazars and fairs: Hats and bazars are 22, fairs 8, most noted of which are Dhamaer Hat, Mughaler Hat, Roazar Hat, Shantir Hat, Mariam Nagar Hat, Chaitra Samkranti Mela (Rajanagar), Muharram Mela (Rangunia), Surya Brota Mela (Majumdarkhil Kadamtali), Rathjatra Mela and Bijoy Mela.
Main exports: Betel leaf, papaya, vegetables. Access to electricity: All the wards and unions of the upazila are under rural electrification net-work. However 49.63% of the dwelling households have access to electricity.
Natural resources’ Lime stone has been detected in this upazila.
Sources of drinking water: Tube-well 87.79%, tap 1.45%, pond 2.99% and others 7.77%.
Sanitation: 48.31% (rural 45.90% and urban 59.77%) of dwelling households of the upazila use sanitary latrines and 36.20% (rural 37.23% and urban 31.30%) of dwelling households use non-sanitary latrines; 15.49% of households do not have latrine facilities. Health centres: Upazila health complex 1, family planning centre 11, satellite clinic 2. NGO activities: Operationally important NGO is caritas. — Banglapedia