The UN General Assembly has asked the UN's highest court to give a legal opinion on Israel's occupation of Palestinian territories.
The resolution was backed by 87 countries but opposed by 26 others, including the UK and US.
Friday's vote came a day after Benjamin Netanyahu was sworn as prime minister of the most hard-line Israeli cabinet.
Israel occupies the West Bank, and although it pulled out of Gaza the UN still regards that piece of land as occupied territory.
Israel claims the whole of Jerusalem as its capital, while the Palestinians claim East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. The US is one of only a handful of countries to recognise the city as Israel's capital.
Palestinians claim the West Bank, along with Israeli-annexed East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip for their hoped-for future state.