France has said it is recalling its ambassadors in the US and Australia for consultations, in protest at a security deal which also includes the UK.
The French foreign minister said the "exceptional decision" was justified by the situation's "exceptional gravity".
The move angered France as it scuppered a multibillion-dollar deal it had signed with Australia.
The agreement is widely seen as an effort to counter China's influence in the contested South China Sea. It was announced on Wednesday by US President Joe Biden, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson and his Australian counterpart Scott Morrison.
France was informed of the alliance only hours before the public announcement was made.