J-K under India ahead of Pakistan occupied A-K in terms of literacy, employment and other indicators

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30th October, 2020 11:49:33 printer

J-K under India ahead of Pakistan occupied A-K in terms of literacy, employment and other indicators

Students receiving education in Jammu Kashmir under India (left) while people are travelling by a jam-packed and dilapidated bus in Pakistan occupied Azad Kashmir

Jammu-Kashmir being a territory of India is ahead of Azad-Kashmir occupied by Pakistan in terms of literacy, healthcare, employment, per capita income and other indicators.

India does more to promote literacy, healthcare, employment and infrastructural development in Jammu-Kashmir compared to the poor initiative of Pakistan, causing precarious situation of the people Azad-Kashmir.

Here are 10 points that prove which government treats its people better, according to a study report released by Delhi-based organisation Law and Society Alliance.

Budget allotted to PoJK by Pakistan and JK by India

According to the report, the number of hospitals in Jammu and Kashmir stands at 5,534 while in PoJK, the number of hospitals is only 73. The situation is far worse in GB where the number of hospitals is only 33. The infant mortality rate also shows a massive difference. In JK, the IMR is 23 while in PoJK, it is 62.

Kashmir has been a constant subject of conflict between India and Pakistan. While for India, Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan are all part of India, for Pakistan, PoK is a territory that it has claimed is ‘azaad’, however, it is firmly under the rule and occupation of Pakistan. Gilgit Baltistan, similarly, is also under the Pakistani occupation. The three regions have seen an extremely different growth trajectory and standard of living indices under the direct rule of India and Pakistan.

A study released by organisation Law and Society Alliance lists the comparison between PoJK, JK and Gilgit-Baltistan as far as the condition of living is concerned.

According to the report released by Law and Society Alliance, the PoJK government allocated PKR (Pakistani Rupee) 12,156 crore or US$773 million for its 2019-20budget.1 On the other hand, J&K spent INR (Indian National Rupees) 88,911 crore or US$12.4 billion in the fiscal year 2019-20.

Essentially, India allocated funds which as 16 times higher compared to the amount spent by Pakistan in Pakistan occupied Kashmir.

Education and literacy

The literacy rate in Gilgit-Baltistan is at an abysmal stage, per the report. The report cites Pakistani non-profit organisation Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies, Islamabad (PIPS) to say that the literary rate in the area is a abysmal 14% for men and 3.5% for women.

In Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, the literacy rate is far better, standing at 60%.

The report states that there are currently six small and big universities in PoJK. Except for the University of Azad Kashmir, all other universities were founded in the 21st century and are yet to be fully developed. Besides, there are two small universities in G-B region with small numbers of student enrolments. The Karakoram International University has a comparatively higher number of enrolments than the Baltistan University – which was founded recently in 2017.

The literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir, on the other hand, is 67.16%. As of now, there are ten major State Universities and two major Central Universities in J&K: one Central University in each part of the state – Central University of Jammu and Central University of Kashmir. In addition, there are four premier Institutes of National Importance including Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Jammu, Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Jammu, National Institute of Technology (NIT) Srinagar and National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Srinagar.

The spending by the respective governments on education is also a telling market of how seriously the governments view education and literacy in the respective regions.

Education indicators in the three regions (Table source: Report by Law and Society Alliance

According to the report, India spent $1.55 Billion on education in JK, has 12 Universities and a literacy rate of 67.16%.

In Pakistan Occupied Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan spent $173 million, has 6 universities and a literacy rate of 60%.

What is worse is that there is no record per se of any expenditure in Gilgit Baltistian. It has only 20 Universities and the literacy rate is less than 20%.

Health condition and government expenditure

The budget of Pakistan Occupied Jammu and Kashmir for health in the fiscal year 2019-20 was US$62 million.14 Whereas, India allocated $ 618 million for health in year 2019. The comparison of relative health expenditures of both the governments reflects a similar trend observed in education expenditure, as the budget allocated by India in Jammu and Kashmir is approximately 11 times more than that by Pakistan in PoJK.

Interestingly, while Pakistan infant mortality rate is 62 per thousand infants, it does not even include PoJK and Gilgit-Baltistan while measure IMR. Considering the undevelopment of these regions, the IMR is expected to far greater in these regions, according to the report.

The report says, “available statistics suggest that G-B’s maternal mortality ratio hovers between 250 and 600 per 100,000 live births – among the highest in Pakistan”.

According to the report, the number of hospitals in Jammu and Kashmir stands at 5,534 while in PoJK, the number of hospitals is only 73. The situation is far worse in GB where the number of hospitals is only 33. The infant mortality rate also shows a massive difference. In JK, the IMR is 23 while in PoJK, it is 62.

Per capita income

The report states, “According to Agha Khan Rural Support Program Survey, the annual per capita income of G-B is less than US$268, which is one-quarter of Pakistan’s national average per capita income. The per capita income of PoJK is US$1,512, which is around six times higher than the per capita income of G-B and substantially higher than that of J&K. Per capita income of J&K is US$1,000 per annum. Despite a moderate per capita income, the poverty rate in J&K is extremely low and currently stands at 10.35 per cent, which is almost half of the national average of around 21 per cent.

According to the latest data available, the unemployment rate in PoJK is higher than the national average of Pakistan, measuring 10.3 per cent. Whereas it stands at 5.3 per cent in J&K, measuring lower than the national average.”

Besides, people under Pakistani occupied region are deprived of better language, freedom of religion, human rights, freedom of expression and association and laws leading to human rights.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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