In a statement, Twitter said the pair spoke about "protecting the health of the public conversation" ahead of the US 2020 general election.
Earlier Mr Trump had accused the platform of being "very discriminatory" towards him.Mr Trump tweeted a picture of Mr Dorsey and him in the Oval Office and called it a "great meeting".
"Lots of subjects discussed regarding their platform, and the world of social media in general," he wrote.
Mr Dorsey thanked the president in a reply to his tweet.
"Twitter is here to serve the entire public conversation, and we intend to make it healthier and more civil," the Twitter CEO wrote.
The meeting came just hours after the president posted two tweets repeating his longstanding claim that the platform is politically biased.He said Twitter did not "treat me well as a Republican" and accused it of limiting the number of people who follow him.
"Constantly taking people off list. Big complaints from many people," he wrote, claiming the numbers would be higher "if Twitter wasn't playing their political games".
The company has consistently denied accusations of bias, and said fluctuations in Mr Trump's follower numbers result from purges of suspected bots.
Mr Trump - a famously prolific Twitter user - has about 60 million followers.
He has used the platform in the past to launch scathing attacks on journalists, politicians and foreign nations, drawing intense criticism.
Mr Trump tweeted a video of Democratic congresswoman Ilhan Omar in April which she said led to a rise in threats against her life.