Fast bowler Nathan Coulter-Nile helped Australia bowl out India for 252 despite a fluent 92 by skipper Virat Kohli in the second one-day international on Thursday.
The hosts depended on a 102-run second-wicket stand between Kohli and Ajinkya Rahane, who made 55, to start strongly before the Australian bowlers struck back at the Eden Gardens.
Fast bowlers Coulter-Nile and Kane Richardson claimed three wickets each for the visitors, who lost the first in the five-match series in Chennai.
Coulter-Nile claimed opener Rohit Sharma caught and bowled for seven, but had to wait to get his next two as Indian batsmen scored freely.
Rahane's run out started the turnaround for the visitors and Ashton Agar soon bowled Manish Pandey for three to halt India's progress.
Coulter-Nile came back for his second spell to get Kedar Jadhav out for 24 and end another dangerous-looking stand with Kohli at the other end.
He finally got Kohli's prized wicket to deny the star batsman his 31st ODI ton. Kohli chopped a swinging delivery onto his stumps.
Richardson, who replaced James Faulkner in the starting lineup, got into the act after sending Mahendra Singh Dhoni trudging back to the pavilion as India slipped to 204-6.
First match hero Hardik Pandya and Bhuvneshwar Kumar - the two scored 20 runs each - tried hard to put up some crucial runs in the final overs but Richardson cut short their efforts.